Diabetes mellitus develops with a lack of the hormone insulin in the body. It can be either hereditary or acquired, resulting from damage to the pancreas. The appearance of diabetes can contribute to increased consumption of animal fats, light carbohydrates, other violations of the recommended rational diet, under the influence of external factors in the form of stress, unfavorable ecology. With diabetes, there is a threat of self-poisoning of the body as a result of metabolic disorders, the occurrence of metabolic acidosis. Unfortunately, diabetes is not cured, its course can be supported by a diet, since proper nutrition is the only medicine for diabetes of the 2nd degree (not insulin-dependent) and a necessary auxiliary tool in the treatment of more severe stages of diabetes mellitus.
Diet in mild forms of the disease involves a reduction in the use of animal fats, a sharp decrease in the level of carbohydrates due to sugar and sugar-containing products, instead of them you need to use sweeteners. The diet should include products containing lipotropic substances, vitamins, dietary fiber (low-fat cottage cheese, lean fish, seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread made from coarse flour). It is necessary to use as many boiled and baked products as possible. Fried dishes should be consumed as rarely as possible. For such a diet is characterized by a decrease in the amount of cholesterol.
Of great importance is the regularity of food intake. In contrast to the usual three meals a day, with diabetes mellitus, it is necessary to eat at least 4to 6 times during the day, evenly distributing the energy value of the products taken, the only note is that dinner should not account for more than 10% of the energy value of the diet.
From the diet should be excluded for the first courses: strong broths, milk soups with manna, rice, vermicelli.
For second courses, it is necessary to exclude fatty parts of the liver, meat of geese, ducks, all kinds of smoked meat, most varieties of sausages, canned meat, fish pickles, canned tomatoes.
From dairy products, low-fat varieties of cottage cheese and dishes made from it are recommended. Salty cheeses, sweet curds, cream are not recommended.
The use of potatoes should be limited due to its energy value, the advantage should be given to cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin, cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants. Pickles and marinades should be limited as much as possible.
Fresh sweet and sour fruits and berries can be consumed without restrictions. Grapes, raisins, dates, figs, bananas should be excluded from the menu.
for diabetic patients who take external insulin, the diet should be increased by increasing the amount of bread, cereals, potatoes, vegetables and fruits. They also increase the rate of consumption of meat (protein) and fat. Since a sharp restriction of carbohydrates leads to an increased consumption of liver glycogen, the formation of glucose and the accumulation in the blood of products of incomplete oxidation of fats and proteins, then with insulin therapy, 30-40 g of sugar is allowed.
With a complicated form of diabetes mellitus, as a result of insufficient intake of carbohydrates in the body, glycocemia is possible – a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels and, as a result, weakness, fainting. this condition is quickly eliminated by taking candy, a spoonful of sugar or honey. Therefore, patients with severe diabetes should always have something sweet in their pocket, food should be taken at least six times a day.